LCC Architecture: Types and Components of a Marina
Marina’s main role provide shelter from wind, waves and swell of passing craft; access to moorings at all states of tide with space for maneuvre; tie-up points for boats with services, eg water, el, telephone, television, refuse collection, fire fighting, sanitation, public address system; sanitary needs and amenities for yachtsmen, e.g. wc, sho, changing and drying rm, entertaining, sporting activities, shopping; car parking; equipment for launching, lifting, maneuvring, repairing, maintaining boats; other bldg directly related to boating.
TYPES OF DEVELOPMENT
Land to water relationship ->(1): land locked ->(4), built-in ->(5): semi-recessed, offshore, island (constructed in open water: special case.
Non-tidal: variations of water level ^ 1000; usually easy for people and, trolleys and simple connections between onshore and offshore service systems;
Tidal: substantial changes of water level; difficult connection between pontoons and land for people and services; construction difficulties almost inevitable.
Site selection factors: legal problems; transport systems; potential for future extension; construction options and methods; geological, hydraulic, climatic; soil and sub-soil; orientation, physical features, erosion, possibility of flooding; engineering network on shore; materials stability; tides, currents, navigational requirements; pollution control; labor sources; effect of marina on existing environment during construction period and after completion.
OFFSHORE BOAT HARBOR COMPONENTS
Area needed: craft sizes vary: 14.8-21.3 m (USA 4.3-24.4 m), beam 1.8-6.0 m (USA 2-6 m); areas of water calculated on basis of planned number and size of craft moored, pontoon layout, types of berth.
Depth of water: min 600 (USA 610) plus max draft of vessel at lowest astronomical tide, 300 reserved for stilting, 300 for clearance. If too shallow at lowest tide dredging necessary.
Channel: leading to entrance 2= 20-30 m wide; main channel within harbor area depends on number and sizes of craft passing through at any 1 time, min w 18 m.
Entrance: protection required from ingress (wave energy to be absorbed before choppy conditions arise in yacht basin) —»(2); suitable protection: spending beaches, rocks or concrete blocks molded to appropriate shapes, piles.
Pontoon layouts: well selected layout very important; main choice limited to pontoons stretching from a land, b breakwaters, c floating elements -»(3).
Berth types —>(6): a stern to quay, jetty or pontoon bows to piles (poor for embarking); b same but bows moored to anchors or buoys (not for tidal marinas); c alongside finger piers or catwalks, 1 craft each side (convenient for embarking); d alongside quays, jetties or pontoons, single banked; e same up to 3 or 4 abreast (disadvantage of yachtsmen on outer climbing over inner craft); f star finger.
See Part 2 of Design of Marinas