LCC Architecture: Types and Components of a Marina 2
THE MARINA 2
Locks: often have more than 1 compartment; should maintain constant water level on 1 side, other side varying with tide; capacity decided by peak use; waiting pontoons either side lock recommended.
Pontoon design: often used to carry services and to support lighting units, lockers, refuse collection points, fire fighting devices; service bollards often provided: boats/bollard 2-6; sewage collection points for boats recommended either as holding tanks or as outlets connected with vacuum sewage system leading to onshore network. Min w main access pontoons 2000 with fingers^ 500 wide; if total pier I over 100, 2500 w more appropriate; min w floating pontoon 2500.
Pontoon types: fixed: for non-tidal marinas; fixed deck (timber, aluminium, plastics decking) resting on structural supports (piles most common); service ducts usually under deck;
floating: for tidal marinas or where structural difficulties occur and supports on bed not feasible (eg deep water, geological conditions); deck fixed to floating units and so kept at required level above water; floats of steel, plastics, timber, concrete, polystyrene, filled with lightweight material (eg polystyrene) or left hollow; pontoons held in position by dolphins; in exceptional cases may be anchored to bed; connexion to land by hinged bridge, ramps, lifts, hoists, collapsible steps.
Breakwaters: rubble mound: mainly for sites with relatively small tidal variations; alternative concrete blocks moulded to shape: not appropriate for more extensive structures; with relatively shallow slope (1:2 to 1:3) rubble mound occupies large water area otherwise available for craft or other essential uses;
Vertical face: concrete walls (constructed in open sea conditions as mass concrete or buttress structures): efficient when built, difficult to construct and maintain;
Caisson type: precast concrete cylinders (either hollow or filled with sand) resting on seabed; circular shaped cusps between units, positive contribution to wave energy absorption;
Floating: usually considered for sites with great depth of water and relatively mild conditions; sometimes act as secondary protection or primary barrier, reducing sea impact before waves reach main sea defence.
Fuelling points: considered desirable but not required by authorities (UK); floating tanks not usually accepted. NB fire risk prevention at points of flexible connexions between tanks and floating pumps.
Pollution control: in non-tidal marinas water circulation certainly required but hard to achieve. Sanitary accn for yachtsmen essential (travelling distance =£ 100 m); provide refuse disposal units close to craft as possible; pollution culverts may also be needed.
Car parking: ratio cars: boats 1:1-1:2; not too far from craft for yachtsmen and their eqp;
Sanitary accn; recommended min either 1 wcandl sho each sex per 20 berths or 1 wc, 1 urinal, 1 hb, 1 sho per 25 men, 1 wc, 1 hb, 1 sho per 25 women (max occupancy of harbour estimated 60%; suggested ratio mentowomen2:1);
Yacht clubs: floor ar/P 1.0-5.0 m2: club rm, lav, drying rm, bars, restaurants, meeting rm, indoor sports, off, information centre, sleeping accn, caretaker’s flat:
hard standing, boat sto, repair shop and other elements related to boat maintenance and handling; should have suitable device for boat lifting and launching and easy connexion to roads; free areas for manoeuvring; fuel tanks often sited close to boatyards; ancillaries may include customs, coastguards, lock keepers, insurance brokers, car hire, travel agent off.