History of Architecture 1 – Ancient Near East
History of Architecture 1 – University of San Agustin, Philippines
ZIGGURATS or “Holy Mountains”– chief bldg. structure , square or rectangle in plan w/ steeply battered sides & an open flatform on top containing the “Fire Altar “.
THREE TYPES OF ZIGGURATS:
- Archaic ziggurat – usally have one flat top rectangular mound carrying the upper temple. e.g White Temple at Warka
- Two or more stages Ziggurat –rectangular in plan, design w/ several tiers or stages.
e.g The ziggurat, Nimrod, Tower of Babel Ziggurat at Bursippa, seven stage pyramid dedicated to seven heavenly planets.
c.) Seven stages square base ziggurat
e.g Palace of Nebuchadnezzar, it has the “ Hanging Garden of Babylon”.
CITY OF BABYLON – with towers & 100 Bronze Gates.
PALACE OF SARGON, KHORBAD – entrance portals flanked with status of headed
winged bulls & lions. It contains 700 rooms.
IMPORTANT PARTS OF PALACE
- SERAGLIO – palace proper w/c includes the kings residence , men’s apartment & reception courts.
- HAREM – usually designed w/ a private family apartments or women’s quarter.
- KHAN – or service chambers , Khan is a Moslem “ inn”, for travelers prototype
PALACE FLATFORM PERSOPOLIS – occupies 1500 and 1000 ft. & is elevated 40 ft.
It contains the following:
a.) Palace of Darius c.) Hypostyle Hall of Xerxes
b.) Palace of Xerxes d.) Halls of Hundreds columns
e ). Propylaea – entrance to hall design by Xerxes