History – Egyptian Arhitecture
History of Architecture 1 – University of San Agustin, Philippines
- EGYPT HISTORICAL INFLUENCE
30 DYNASTIES – started from 3rd Millennium B.C. to Roman Period. Egypt was part of Persian Empire for 2 Centuries, before the invasion of “ALEXANDER the Great “.
- ANCIENT KINGDOM ( 1ST– 10TH DYNASTY )
Development of two types of tombs
a.) Mastaba b.) Pyramid
- MIDDLE KINGDOM ( 11TH– 17TH DYNASTY )
- MENTUHETEP II – developed the 3rdtype of tomb “Rock–cut Tomb”.
- SENUSRETS – erected the earliest known “Obelisk” @ Heliopolis
- AMENEMHAT I – founded “Great Temple of Ammon Kharnak” Grandest of all temples
- NEW EMPIRE ( 18TH– 30TH DYNASTY )
- THOTMES 1– began the additions to the Temple of AMMON, Kharnak.
- HATSHEPSUT – queen of Egypt, famous for her funerary temple @ Mt.Der-El-Bahari.
- THOTMES 1V –the one responsible for the cleaning away of sand fr. the “Sphinx”
- AMENOPHIS III – erected the “Colossi of Memnon”,one of the wonders of the world.
- RAMESES I – began the construction of the “Great Hypostyle Hall”, @ Kharnak
- RAMESES II – finished the construction of the “Hypostyle Hall”, & erection of the “Rock Temple @ ABU- SIMBEL ”, and the “Remission”,Thebes.
- THE PTOLEMAIC PERIOD
- PTOLEMY II – built the Pharaohs or the “Light House” .
- PTOLEMY III – founded the “Greatest Serapeum” at Alexandria.
F. SOCIAL AND POLITICAL INFLUENCE
- MONARCHY – form of government
- PHARAOH – King of Egypt, ruler , highest priest in Egypt
- SON OF PHARAOH – normal successor to the throne
- VIZIER – King’s most powerful official
- CHANCELOR- he controls the royal treasuries, granaries ,& supervises the census
- CHIEF STEWARD- in charge of the King’s personal estate & household.
- SOCIAL RANKS:
- NOBLE FAMILIES-royal throne with his family
- SOLDIERS, VIZIERS, CHANCELLORS, CHIEF STEWARDS – next to leaders
- FISHERMEN, FARMERS, CRAFTMENS, MERCHANTS – ordinary Egyptians
- SLAVES-lowest form
- ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER
3.) SOLIDITY OR MASSIVENESS
SYSTEMS OF CONSTRUCTION:
POST & LINTEL; COLUMNAR OR TRABEATED.