Methods of Personality Profiling for Work Productivity
A Comparison: Strengthfinder, Myers-Briggs, DISC Profiles and Enneagram
When I was in high school, discussions about personality revolved around the four temperaments, the sanguine, choleric, melancholic and phlegmatic. Due to my interest in psychology, if I didn’t become architect, I would have probably taken psychology.
During the same time, I came across the Enneagram. How interesting can it be as it can predict what a fully developed personality would progress into? And at the same time, how a peresonality at its worse can degress to a different type.
Nowadays, the study of personality has taken in a strong motivation and purpose: work productivity. I have rediscovered newer personality classification in Church Leadership in Victory Christian Fellowship, Networking Circles and through OCCI Coaching Programs.
The Enneagram is a model of human personality which is principally understood and taught as a typology of nine interconnected personality types. Although the origins and history of many of the ideas and theories associated with the Enneagram of Personality are a matter of dispute, contemporary Enneagram understandings are principally derived from the teachings of Oscar Ichazo and Claudio Naranjo.
|Type||Role Personality||Holy idea||Basic Fear||Basic desire||Temptation||Vice/Passion||Virtue|
|1||Reformer||Perfection||Corruptness, imbalance, being bad||Goodness, integrity, balance||Hypocrisy, hypercriticism||Anger||Serenity|
|2||Helper||Freedom, Will||Being unloved||To feel love||Deny own needs, manipulation||Pride||Humility|
|3||Achiever||Hope, Law||Worthlessness||To feel valuable||Pushing self to always be “the best”||Deceit||Truthfulness, Authenticity|
|4||Individualist||Origin||Having no identity or significance||To be uniquely themselves||To overuse imagination in search of self||Envy||Equanimity (Emotional Balance)|
|5||Investigator||Omniscience, Transparency||Helplessness, incapability, incompetence||Mastery, understanding||Replacing direct experience with concepts||Avarice||Non-Attachment|
|6||Loyalist||Faith||Being without support or guidance||To have support and guidance||Indecision, doubt, seeking reassurance||Fear||Courage|
|7||Enthusiast||Wisdom, Plan||Being trapped in pain and deprivation||To be satisfied and content||Thinking fulfillment is somewhere else||Gluttony||Sobriety|
|8||Challenger||Truth||Being harmed, controlled, violated||Self-protection||Thinking they are completely self-sufficient||Lust (Forcefulness)||Innocence|
|9||Peacemaker||Love||Loss, fragmentation, separation||Wholeness, peace of mind||Avoiding conflicts, avoiding self-assertion||Sloth (Disengagement)||Action|
Strengthfinder (Clifton Strengths Finder)
From the book: Now, Discover Your Strengths written in 2001, authors Marcus Buckingham and Donald O. Clifton described the principle of developing your strength instead of covering your weakness. The system claims that the Gallup Organization has created a pattern of “strengths” by interviewing 1.7 million professionals from varying fields. Having quantified the different traits of the people they interviewed, they came up with 34 distinct patterns—what they call “talent themes”.
These themes describe a range of human uniqueness observed during their research. The following are the different themes.
- Achiever – one with a constant drive for accomplishing tasks
- Activator – one who acts to start things in motion
- Adaptability – one who is especially adept at accommodating to changes in direction/plan
- Analytical – one who requires data and/or proof to make sense of their circumstances
- Arranger – one who enjoys orchestrating many tasks and variables to a successful outcome
- Belief – one who strives to find some ultimate meaning behind everything they do
- Command – one who steps up to positions of leadership without fear of confrontation
- Communication – one who uses words to inspire action and education
- Competition – one who thrives on comparison and competition to be successful
- Connectedness – one who seeks to unite others through commonality
- Consistency – one who believes in treating everyone the same to avoid unfair advantage
- Context – one who is able to use the past to make better decisions in the present
- Deliberative – one who proceeds with caution, seeking to always have a plan and know all of the details
- Developer – one who sees the untapped potential in others
- Discipline – one who seeks to make sense of the world by imposition of order
- Empathy – one who is especially in tune with the emotions of others
- Focus – one who requires a clear sense of direction to be successful
- Futuristic – one who has a keen sense of using an eye towards the future to drive today’s success
- Harmony – one who seeks to avoid conflict and achieve success through consensus
- Ideation – one who is adept at seeing underlying concepts that unite disparate ideas
- Includer – one who instinctively works to include everyone
- Individualization – one who draws upon the uniqueness of individuals to create successful teams
- Input – one who is constantly collecting information or objects for future use
- Intellection – one who enjoys thinking and thought-provoking conversation often for its own sake, and also can data compress complex concepts into simplified models
- Learner – one who must constantly be challenged and learning new things to feel successful
- Maximizer – one who seeks to take people and projects from great to excellent
- Positivity – one who has a knack for bring the light-side to any situation
- Relator – one who is most comfortable with fewer, deeper relationships
- Responsibility – one who must follow through on commitments
- Restorative – one who thrives on solving difficult problems
- Self-Assurance – one who stays true to their beliefs, judgments and is confident of his/her ability
- Significance – one who seeks to be seen as significant by others
- Strategic – one who is able to see a clear direction through the complexity of a situation
- Woo – one who is able to easily persuade (short for “Winning Others Over”)
The Gallup Group has developed an online test that they claim will reveal the test-taker’s top five themes. The “Clifton Strengths Finder” http://www.strengthsfinder.com is a web based questionnaire, which based on the answers claims to be able to define individual “Strengths”.
The D-I-S-C Profiles
DISC theory of psychologist William Moulton Marston, which centers on four different behavioral traits: dominance, inducement, submission, and compliance. The four behavioral traist are dominance, influence, compliance, steadiness.
DISC maintains that most conflicts happen due to differing expectations of people. The key to DISC is how to relate to another profiles. It emphasizes adapting your profile to a particular style to reach common ground with another style. By doing so getting on the same wavelength between two people becomes easier.
Below are the identified styles or patterns from the 4 basic profiles.
- Objective Thinker
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
The MBTI was constructed by Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers. It is based on the typological theory proposed by Carl Jung who had speculated that there are four principal psychological functions by which people experience the world – sensation, intuition, feeling, and thinking – and that one of these four functions is dominant for a person most of the time. “The underlying assumption of the MBTI is that we all have specific preferences in the way we construe our experiences, and these preferences underlie our interests, needs, values, and motivation.”
4 Cognitive Learning Styles
The extraverted types learn best by talking and interacting with others. By interacting with the physical world, extraverts can process and make sense of new information. The introverted types prefer quiet reflection and privacy. Information processing occurs for introverts as they explore ideas and concepts internally.
The second continuum reflects what people focus their attentions on. Sensing types enjoy a learning environment in which the material is presented in a detailed and sequential manner. Sensing types often attend to what is occurring in the present, and can move to the abstract after they have established a concrete experience. Intuitive types prefer a learning atmosphere in which an emphasis is placed on meaning and associations. Insight is valued higher than careful observation, and pattern recognition occurs naturally for intuitive types.
The third continuum reflects a person’s decision preferences. Thinking types desire objective truth and logical principles and are natural at deductive reasoning. Feeling types place an emphasis on issues and causes that can be personalized while they consider other people’s motives.
The fourth continuum reflects how a person regards complexity. Judging types will thrive when information is organized and structured, and they will be motivated to complete assignments in order to gain closure. Perceiving types will flourish in a flexible learning environment in which they are stimulated by new and exciting ideas. Judging types like to be on time, while perceiving types may be late and/or procrastinate.
These four learning styles contribute to different unique style in the matrix.
- The expressive role variants are Promoters (expressive Operators), Performers (expressive Entertainers), Supervisors (expressive Administrators), Providers (expressive Conservators), Teachers (expressive Mentors), Champions (expressive Advocates), Fieldmarshals (expressive Coordinators), and Inventors (expressive Engineers).
- The attentive role variants are Crafters (attentive Operators), Composers (attentive Entertainers), Inspectors (attentive Administrators), Protectors (attentive Conservators), Counselors (attentive Mentors), Healers (attentive Advocates), Masterminds (attentive Coordinators), and Architects (attentive Engineers).
Below is the Table Illustrating the styles.
|Concrete or Abstract||Cooperative or Utilitarian?||Informative or Directive?||Expressive or Attentive?|
|Observant (S)||Guardian (SJ) Logisticians||Conservator (SFJ)||Provider (ESFJ): Supplying|
|Supporting||Protector (ISFJ): Securing|
|Administrator (STJ)||Supervisor (ESTJ): Enforcing|
|Regulating||Inspector (ISTJ): Certifying|
|Artisan (SP) Tactical||Entertainer (SFP)||Performer (ESFP): Demonstrating|
|Improvising||Composer (ISFP): Synthesizing|
|Operator (STP)||Promoter (ESTP): Persuading|
|Expediting||Crafter (ISTP): Instrumenting|
|Introspective (N)||Idealist (NF) Diplomats||Advocate (NFP)||Champion (ENFP): Motivating|
|Mediating||Healer (INFP): Conciliating|
|Mentor (NFJ)||Teacher (ENFJ): Educating|
|Developing||Counselor (INFJ): Guiding|
|Rational (NT) Strategists||Engineer (NTP)||Inventor (ENTP): Devising|
|Constructing||Architect (INTP): Designing|
|Coordinator (NTJ)||Fieldmarshal (ENTJ): Mobilizing|
|Arranging||Mastermind (INTJ): Entailing|
In Conclusion, there will always be newer ways to do business. The yesteryears never considered personality or thinking types and as long as we are open to learn. We will discover newer ways to improve productivity